AR technology dates to Sony CSL’s project in the ‘90s

サイバーコード_ページ用Real-world scenes photographed by cameras. Characters and computer graphics. Augmented reality (AR), which integrates those materials seamlessly, has become familiar as a technology for smartphone navigation and live TV broadcasts of sports events. Sony CSL has engaged in AR research since the early 1990s, and its first successful result was CyberCode. CyberCode was first proposed in 1996 by CSL’s Jun Rekimoto. Using such inexpensive sensors as a Web camera, he found that it was possible to identify printed two-dimensional codes and detect their three-dimensional positions and directions.An example of CyberCode AR technology Look into CyberCode through a Web or smartphone camera →you will see a projected image integrated into computer graphics, which seems as if it exists in the real world. ※Artist’s rendition of an image projected on the screen.

How CyberCode works

Images loaded into a camera become binarized—0 and 1, from which candidate codes are searched. If the white-and-black cell pattern of a two-dimensional candidate code is appropriately identified, you have the correct CyberCode. Once the code has been identified, the three-dimensional position of the camera used is assumed from the picture shape shown on the code’s screen. According to the position thus obtained, actual images are overlaid with CG and other information. Thanks to these capabilities, CyberCode allows a simple and high-precision synthesis of actual and computer graphic images. It works with just a camera and visual markers, with no need for expensive equipment, such as three-dimensional sensors.


After it was first proposed, CyberCode found its way into several Sony products, including the VAIO C1, a camera-equipped laptop, which hit the market in 1998. In 2006, an AR-based kiosk terminal was installed in the Sony building in Ginza, Tokyo. And in 2007, “The Eye of Judgment,” a Playstation 3 game involving trading cards, made its debut, presenting a new AR-based style of entertainment.